consumers

The consumer’s right to have goods restored to a condition consistent with the agreement

car

In the opinion of the Regional Court in Elbląg (judgement of 15 April 2015, I Ca 68/15), allowing the seller to rely in proceedings on the defence based on the pleading of the non-existence of the claim in case the seller fails to reply to a demand from the consumer (buyer) to have the good restored to the condition stipulated by the agreement, and as a result this demand being deemed justified, would mean the limitation in exercising consumer rights. The failure to react to the consumer’s demands within the prescribed term creates the fiction of allowing the claim, which means the seller in general accepts the pleading that the good is inconsistent with the agreement from the moment of the handover thereof.

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Posted on by Krzysztof Riedl in Consumer Law, Contract Law, General Issues

Promissory note enforcement vs. an ex officio review of unfair terms (Profi Credit Polska: C-176/17)

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On 17 February 2017, the District Court in Siemianowice Śląskie (the “Court”) referred to the CJEU a preliminary question (C-176/17), asking whether the provisions of Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993 on unfair terms in consumer contracts, especially Article  6(1) and Article 7(1), and the provisions of Directive 2008/48/EC of 23 April 2008 on credit agreements for consumers and repealing Council Directive 87/102/EEC, especially Article 17(1) and Article 22(1), are to be interpreted as precluding the entrepreneur (the lender) from pursuing a claim against the consumer (the borrower), where the claim is acknowledged by a duly completed promissory note, by way of payment order proceedings specified in Article 485 § 2 and subsequent provisions of the Polish Civil Procedure Code, in relation to Article 41 of the Act on Consumer Credit of 12 May 2011, which limit the national court solely to examining the validity of the promissory note obligation with regard to the formal requirements of the promissory note, excluding examining the basic relation (the loan agreement).

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Posted on by Krzysztof Riedl in Civil Procedure, Consumer Law, Contract Law, General Issues

Promissory note enforcement vs. an ex officio review of unfair terms

loan

In the opinion of the District Court in Siemianowice Śląskie (judgement of 15 September 2016, I C 741/16), on the one hand the legislation provides for instruments making it possible to protect the consumer against unfair market practices, but on the other hand there functions a procedure of pursuing claims (in this case: payment order proceedings on the basis of a promissory note), which makes it possible to considerably weaken, in the consumer trade practice, the application of instruments of consumer protection. The Court, by limiting itself to an assessment of whether a promissory note has been issued correctly, does not need to examine whether a consumer loan agreement contains any abusive clauses, or whether the information obligations of the lender have been fulfilled, etc. Therefore, the provisions on payment order proceedings constitute a clear intrusion into the system of protecting the consumer against unfair market practices, which are described in Article 76 of the Constitution.

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Posted on by Krzysztof Riedl in Consumer Law, Contract Law, General Issues

The effects of abstract review of contract clauses – the resolution of the Supreme Court (III CZP 17/15)

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In the resolution of seven judges of 20 November 2015 (III CZP 17/15) the Supreme Court faced the question of the precise scope of erga omnes effect of in abstracto abusiveness of contract clauses. Under Art. 47943 of the Code of Civil Procedure the judgment that declares abusiveness of a clause is “effective towards third persons”, from the day of listing this clause in the public register administered by the President of the Office of Protection of Competition and Consumers. Although the provisions in question have been repelled from the Polish legal system in April 2016 (and replaced with in abstracto administrative review of clauses), the resolution in question still have a profound significance for framing the underlying premises of abusiveness control in the EU, as well as the interplay between consumer protection and fundamental rights sphere.

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Posted on by Mateusz Grochowski in Civil Procedure, Consumer Law

The effects of abstract review of contract clauses – legislative and judicial framework

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In the resolution of seven judges of 20 November 2015 (III CZP 17/15) the Supreme Court faced the question of the precise scope of erga omnes effect of in abstracto abusiveness of contract clauses. Under Art. 47943 of the Code of Civil Procedure the judgment declaring (abstract) abusiveness of a clause is “effective towards third persons”, from the day of listing this clause in the public register administered by the President of the Office of Protection of Competition and Consumers. Although the provisions in question have been repelled from the Polish legal system in April 2016 (and replaced with in abstracto administrative review of clauses), the resolution in question still have a profound significance for framing the underlying premises of abusiveness control in the EU, as well as the interplay between consumer protection and fundamental rights sphere.

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Posted on by Karolina Rokita-Kornasiewicz in Civil Procedure, Consumer Law

Unilateral termination of contracts under Polish law

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The discussion about provisions relating to the unilateral termination of contracts becomes controversial already at a terminological level. It has been noted, not only in Polish literature, that the terminology used in this field in various national laws is ambiguous and may be misleading (P.S. Atiyah, An Introduction to the Law of Contract, Oxford 1995, p. 398). The power to unilaterally bring a contract to an end may be defined as the right to terminate, withdraw from, cancel or rescind a contract. Certainly, the unilateral termination of a contract is not as uniform as could be sought-after. Thus, it is important to set out the terminological background before presenting the legislative framework for the unilateral termination of contracts under Polish law.

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Posted on by Karolina Pasko in General Issues

The seller’s claims regarding the defective nature of the thing sold – a new quality?

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The Consumer Rights Directive (CRD) required businesses across the EU to comply with its requirements from 13 June 2014. EU Member States have takenvarious approaches to implementing the new legislation. The Polish Act on Consumer Rights, which transposes the CRD, came into force on 25 December2014.  The newly introduced Article 576 (1) of the CC provides that, if the thing did not have the characteristics it should have had in accordance with its intended purpose or in accordance with assurances made in public, or has been issued in an incomplete condition, then the seller that incurred the costs as a result of the consumer exercising its rights under a warranty for physical defects, may request the redress of the damage suffered from one of the previous sellers, as a result of the actions or omissions of which the thing became defective.

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Posted on by Aleksandra Kunkiel-Kryńska in Consumer Law

Consumer Sales Guarantees in the EU by Aneta Wiewiorowska Domagalska – a Review

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In 2012, Aneta Wiewiórowska-Domagalska’s book titled “Consumer Sales Guarantees in the European Union” was published by Sellier European Law Publishers. This fascinating book filled a neglected gap in European legal literature, as the problems of consumer sales guarantees have not been looked at in a way that is both in-depth and all-encompassing. The monograph contains a broad analysis of the legal phenomenon of guarantee: its roots, legal form, EU origins and the relation between the guarantee and other legal instruments of a similar function.

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Posted on by Monika Jagielska in Consumer Law

Act on Consumer Rights Enacted

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A few days ago, on 24 June 2014, the Act on Consumer Rights was finally published. The Act transposes the Consumer Rights Directive and re-transposes the Consumer Sales Directive to Polish law. The Act was adopted on 30 May 2014 and it will come into force six month after its publication, in December 2014.

The vast majority of rules of the Consumer Rights Directive have been transposed outside of the Civil Code (although, during the work on the transposition, there were voices suggesting its inclusion into the Civil Code). Only a few rules of a general contractual character are going to be included into the Civil Code.

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Posted on by Aneta Wiewiórowska-Domagalska in Consumer Law

Does comparative advertising need to be up to date?

tesco

In its judgment of 10 October 2012 (case No I ACa 856/12),[1] the Appeal Court in Krakow found that comparative advertising may compare prices from a different dates, and that companies may continue their advertising even if the competitor changes the prices. It is only necessary to provide customers with precise information on the dates when the prices being compared were valid.

In the contentious advertisement, the operator of a chain of supermarkets, Tesco, compared the prices of a large number of fast-moving goods with prices applied by operators of various discount markets. The advertising campaign was carried out using the phrase “Discount prices” and included methods such as a promotional newspaper and many other forms associated within Tesco markets: posters, comparative price tags on the shelves and under particular products. Read more

Posted on by Michał Strzelecki in Competition